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27,000 B.C. Cro-Magnon man in area that would become Britain.
500 Celts in Britain.
54 Caesar: Invasion of Britain
43 A.D. Roman conquest of England under Emperor Claudius.
Foundation of Londinium
122 Construction of Hadrian’s Wall begun.
360 Picts & Scots cross Hadrian’s Wall attack Roman Britain.

Huns invade Europe.

383 Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain.
Signs of the Times.
410 Visigoths sack Rome.
432 Patrick begins his mission to Ireland.

Brings Roman Catholic church to Ireland.

449 Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain underway.
537 King Arthur killed in Battle of Camlan.
No documentary evidence for the date.
563 Columban founds monastery at Iona.
596 Pope Gregory (St. Gregory the Great) sends Augustine to England.Christian Rome on the offensive.
597 Augustine begins the conversion of Eng to Roman Christianity.

Baptizes King Ethelbert of Kent.
Founds Canterbury (Benedictine).

615 Death of St Columban.
Irish missionary to Europe.
664 Synod of Whitby.
Roman church triumphs in dispute with locals.
673 First synod of the English Roman Catholic
Synod held at Hertford.
700 Lindesfarne Gospels, illuminated Bible.
718 Boniface leaves England.
Brings Roman Catholic Christianity to Low Countries and GermanyMartyred in Holland in 754.
735 Death of Venerable Bede.
English church historian, adopts B.C./A.D.
742 Birth of Charlemagne son of Pepin.
750 Pepin officially named King of the Franks.
Rules France and Germany.
754 HISTORIC ACCORD: Boniface arranges meeting, Pope-King
Pepin promises military help, protect Papal States from Lombards.Pope Stephen III promises consecrate Frankish dynasty (France/Ger).Triumph of policy is coronation of Charlemagne in Rome 800.
781 Carolingian Renaissance.
Charlemagne meets Alcuin at Pavia.
793 Vikings raid Lindisfarne.
796 Monastic school at Tours becomes important center with Alcuin its head.
851 Canterbury Cathedral sacked by Danes.

England on the defensive.

861 Paris sacked by the Northmen.
871 Alfred the Great, King of England,
begin beat back Norsemen/Danes.
878 Anglo-Saxons and Norsemen establish Danelaw.
895 Alfred the Great defeats the Danes.
1066 William the Conqueror.
1086 Domesday Book begun.
1154 Henry, Duke of Normandy, now becomes also King of England.
Beginning of the Angevin (Anjou) Empire,
both sides of the English Channel.
1167 Foundation of Oxford University.
1170 Chretien de Troyes writes Lancelot (Courtly Love romance).
Murder of Thomas Becket; crisis for King Henry.
1189 Death of King Henry II of England.
Richard the Lionhearted succeeds to the throne.
New power for Queen Mother Eleanor of Aquitaine.
1192 King Richard on Crusade captured in Yugoslavia
Held for ransom by agents of the Holy Roman Emperor.
1194 Eleanor raises ransom.
Rides to Rhineland meeting to save son.
Dramatic journey across Europe for the grand old Queen.
Crowds greet her on way and on return.
Extraordinary scene in England:
Queen Mother brings home King Richard.
1199 Death of King Richard.
King John succeeds (Robin Hood doesn’t like).
Eleanor once again influential.
1204 Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Duchess of Aquitaine,
Queen of France, Queen of England, Queen Mother to two kings of
England and four queens.
1215 Magna Carta signed by King John (son of Eleanor).

Cornerstone of English legal protections for indiv.

1240 England: the Great Council comes to be
called Parliament. Important moment in the evolution of most important
legislative body in the West, Marks the change from a royal advisory
council to real democratic representative institution.
1265 English Parliament: send 2 knights, 2
burgesses to Parliament.
This is the real beginning of representative government in England.The first time ever that a large government solves problem of representation.
(not Greece, not Rome)
1277 England annexes Wales.
1337 Beginning of 100 Years War,terrible destruction in France.
1343 Birth of Chaucer.

(d. 1400).

1346 Battle of Crécy, English defeat best
of French chivalry.
power shift, shows growing dominance of England in 14th C.
1348 Black Death in England.
1356 Battle of Poitiers, total Eng triumph, capture King of France John II.

Hundred Years War has now totally devastated France.

France in decline, Eng & Italy in the ascendance.

1399 Henry Bolingbroke usurps the English throne becoming Henry IV,
start of Wars of the Roses.
1485 Battle of Bosworth Field, Henry Tudor ends Wars of the Roses,
establishes Tudor rule of England as Henry VII
1511 Erasmus nominated professor
of Greek at Cambridge.
1518 Foundation of the Royal College of Physicians in London.The beginning of modern scientific medicine.
1528 King Henry VIII begins his proceedings:
Requests “divorce” (annulment) from Catherine of
1531 King Henry VIII recognized:
Supreme Head of the church in England.
1533 Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop
of Canterbury. He proclaims marriage of Hen and Cath void and proclaims
marriage of Hen and Anne Boleyn lawful. Pope excommunicates Henry.
Anne crowned as Queen of England. Birth of daughter Elizabeth to
Henry and Anne.
1534 King Henry makes a final break
with Rome and proclaims himself head of his own English Reformed
church (Anglican international church=Episcoal in USA).
Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury.
1547 Death of Henry VIII:
succeeded by his son Edward VI (1537-1553).
Death of Francis I of France.
succeeded by his son Henry II(1519-1559).
Birth of Cervantes(1547-1616).
1549 English church publishes the new Book
of Common Prayer
(much of which is written by Thomas Cranmer).
1553 Death of King Edward VI of England:
succeeded by his Roman Catholic half-sister Mary.
1554 Queen Mary:
marries Philip of Spain, future king.
1556 Queen Mary burns the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer at
the stake when he refuses to recant his Protestantism.
1558 Mary Queen of England dies and is succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth as Queen Elizabeth I. Protestant Church of England re-instated.

Death of Charles V former King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor.

1564 (April 23) Birth of William Shakespeare.

(d. 1616)

1568 Revolt of the Protestant Netherlands from control of Spain.

Birth of new Protestant Republic of Netherlands and birth of new
alliance between the two Protestant countries of Eng and Neth.

1585 Shakespeare comes to London.
1586 Unveil the plot to kill Queen Eliz and put Mary Queen
of Scots on throne. Mary sentenced to death (executed 1587).
1588 Spanish Armada, Spain’s attempt to destroy Protestant England with the cooperation of the Papacy fails. This final blow to idea of reuniting all of Europe under renewed Roman Catholic Papacy.
1594 Shakespeare:
Romeo and Juliet.
1595 Shakespeare:
A Midsummer Night’s Dream.
1596 Shakespeare:
Merchant of Venice.
1598 Shakespeare:
Henry V.
1599 Shakespeare:
Julius Caesar.
1600 Shakespeare: Hamlet.
1601 Earl of Essex leads revolt against Eliz;
is tried and executed.
Queen Eliz delivers her “Golden Speech” surveying 43 year reign.
1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth of England.
Cousin James of Scotland succeeds as James I.
1605 Shakespeare: King Lear and Macbeth.

Sir Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning.

In London, Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot.

1607 Foundation of colony of Jamestown, Virginia.
first English settlement in America.
1608 Birth of John Milton.
1610 Galileo, The Starry Messenger, published in Venice.
One of the most shocking and exciting works of scientific advance
ever experienced in modern Europe. Galileo becomes an overnight
sensation, a scientific rock star. Letters pour into Padua from
all over Europe.
1611 John Donne:
Anatomy of the World.
1612 Dutch on Manhattan Island.

Begin building very tall buildings.

1614 Sir Walter Raleigh writes The History of the World.
1616 Death of Shakespeare.
Death of Cervantes.
1619 Wm Harvey announces discovery of circulation
of blood.
1620 Pilgrims leave Plymouth, England in Mayflower,seek religious liberty (Puritans).
1622 Weekeley Newes issued in London for first time.
Beginning of modern newspapers, London ahead of all cities.
1623 Publish the First Folio edition of Mr William Shakespeare’s
“Comedies, Histories and Tragedies Published According to the True
Originall Copies.”
1625 Death of King James I.
succeeded by son Charles I.
1626 Death of Francis Bacon.

(b. 1561)

1630 John Winthrop (1587-1649) sails with Plymouth Company
expedition, April arrives Mass. with 1000 settlers, founds Boston
in Sept, becomes first governor of the state, 16,000 more settlers
1632 (Feb.21) Galileo:
Dialogue on Two Chief World Systems (pub in Flo).
First coffee shop opens in London(Newspapers and coffee houses).Birth of John Locke.
1633 (Jun) Galileo in before Inquisition:
abjures the Dialogue in Rome.
1636 Foundation of Harvard.

Tea appears in Paris for first time.

1640 Short Parliament & Long Parliament(to 1653).Begin of war between King of England and the Parliament.
1642 Begin hostilities of the English Civil War.

All theaters closed in England:
by order of the Puritans now in control of Parliament. (till 1660).

Rembrandt’s The Night Watch.Death of Galileo.

1643 King Louis XIV becomes King of France (to 1715)
the most powerful monarch of the 17th century.
Moliere founds the Illustre Theatre in Paris, later Comedie Francaise.
1644 John Milton: Areopagitica argues for the freedom of the press, radical
idea and part of the growing democratic spirit of both England and
the new colonies.
1647 King Charles of England captured,
taken prisoner.
1649 (Jan 19)Trial of King of England before court of Parliament.

(Jan. 30)Execution of the King of England by Parliament.

1660 Parliament invites Charles II:
Come back into England.
1665 First issue of London Gazette:one of first newspapers.
1666 The Great Fire of London.
1667 John Milton:
Paradise Lost.
1685 Death of King Charles II of England,
succeeded by James II.
1688 Expel James II,
invite in Protestant William and Mary from Holland.
1689 Parliament confirms “abdication” of James,
accession of Wm & Mary.
Proclamation of a Declaration of Rights in England
(freedom of speech, press).
1690 John Locke:
Essay Concerning Human Understanding.