|27,000 B.C.||Cro-Magnon man in area that would become Britain.|
|500||Celts in Britain.|
|54||Caesar: Invasion of Britain|
|43 A.D.||Roman conquest of England under Emperor Claudius.
Foundation of Londinium
|122||Construction of Hadrian’s Wall begun.|
|360||Picts & Scots cross Hadrian’s Wall attack Roman Britain.
Huns invade Europe.
|383||Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain.
Signs of the Times.
|410||Visigoths sack Rome.|
|432||Patrick begins his mission to Ireland.
Brings Roman Catholic church to Ireland.
|449||Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain underway.|
|537||King Arthur killed in Battle of Camlan.
No documentary evidence for the date.
|563||Columban founds monastery at Iona.|
|596||Pope Gregory (St. Gregory the Great) sends Augustine to England.Christian Rome on the offensive.|
|597||Augustine begins the conversion of Eng to Roman Christianity.
Baptizes King Ethelbert of Kent.
|615||Death of St Columban.
Irish missionary to Europe.
|664||Synod of Whitby.
Roman church triumphs in dispute with locals.
|673||First synod of the English Roman Catholic
Synod held at Hertford.
|700||Lindesfarne Gospels, illuminated Bible.|
|718||Boniface leaves England.
Brings Roman Catholic Christianity to Low Countries and GermanyMartyred in Holland in 754.
|735||Death of Venerable Bede.
English church historian, adopts B.C./A.D.
|742||Birth of Charlemagne son of Pepin.|
|750||Pepin officially named King of the Franks.
Rules France and Germany.
|754||HISTORIC ACCORD: Boniface arranges meeting, Pope-King
Pepin promises military help, protect Papal States from Lombards.Pope Stephen III promises consecrate Frankish dynasty (France/Ger).Triumph of policy is coronation of Charlemagne in Rome 800.
Charlemagne meets Alcuin at Pavia.
|793||Vikings raid Lindisfarne.|
|796||Monastic school at Tours becomes important center with Alcuin its head.|
|851||Canterbury Cathedral sacked by Danes.
England on the defensive.
|861||Paris sacked by the Northmen.
|871||Alfred the Great, King of England,
begin beat back Norsemen/Danes.
|878||Anglo-Saxons and Norsemen establish Danelaw.|
|895||Alfred the Great defeats the Danes.|
|1066||William the Conqueror.|
|1086||Domesday Book begun.|
|1154||Henry, Duke of Normandy, now becomes also King of England.
Beginning of the Angevin (Anjou) Empire,
both sides of the English Channel.
|1167||Foundation of Oxford University.|
|1170||Chretien de Troyes writes Lancelot (Courtly Love romance).
Murder of Thomas Becket; crisis for King Henry.
|1189||Death of King Henry II of England.
Richard the Lionhearted succeeds to the throne.
New power for Queen Mother Eleanor of Aquitaine.
|1192||King Richard on Crusade captured in Yugoslavia
Held for ransom by agents of the Holy Roman Emperor.
|1194||Eleanor raises ransom.
Rides to Rhineland meeting to save son.
Dramatic journey across Europe for the grand old Queen.
Crowds greet her on way and on return.
Extraordinary scene in England:
Queen Mother brings home King Richard.
|1199||Death of King Richard.
King John succeeds (Robin Hood doesn’t like).
Eleanor once again influential.
|1204||Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Duchess of Aquitaine,
Queen of France, Queen of England, Queen Mother to two kings of
England and four queens.
|1215||Magna Carta signed by King John (son of Eleanor).
Cornerstone of English legal protections for indiv.
|1240||England: the Great Council comes to be
called Parliament. Important moment in the evolution of most important
legislative body in the West, Marks the change from a royal advisory
council to real democratic representative institution.
|1265||English Parliament: send 2 knights, 2
burgesses to Parliament.
This is the real beginning of representative government in England.The first time ever that a large government solves problem of representation.
(not Greece, not Rome)
|1277||England annexes Wales.|
|1337||Beginning of 100 Years War,terrible destruction in France.|
|1343||Birth of Chaucer.
|1346||Battle of Crécy, English defeat best
of French chivalry.
power shift, shows growing dominance of England in 14th C.
|1348||Black Death in England.|
|1356||Battle of Poitiers, total Eng triumph, capture King of France John II.
Hundred Years War has now totally devastated France.
France in decline, Eng & Italy in the ascendance.
|1399||Henry Bolingbroke usurps the English throne becoming Henry IV,
start of Wars of the Roses.
|1485||Battle of Bosworth Field, Henry Tudor ends Wars of the Roses,
establishes Tudor rule of England as Henry VII
|1511||Erasmus nominated professor
of Greek at Cambridge.
|1518||Foundation of the Royal College of Physicians in London.The beginning of modern scientific medicine.|
|1528||King Henry VIII begins his proceedings:
Requests “divorce” (annulment) from Catherine of
|1531||King Henry VIII recognized:
Supreme Head of the church in England.
|1533||Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop
of Canterbury. He proclaims marriage of Hen and Cath void and proclaims
marriage of Hen and Anne Boleyn lawful. Pope excommunicates Henry.
Anne crowned as Queen of England. Birth of daughter Elizabeth to
Henry and Anne.
|1534||King Henry makes a final break
with Rome and proclaims himself head of his own English Reformed
church (Anglican international church=Episcoal in USA).
Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury.
|1547||Death of Henry VIII:
succeeded by his son Edward VI (1537-1553).
Death of Francis I of France.
succeeded by his son Henry II(1519-1559).
Birth of Cervantes(1547-1616).
|1549||English church publishes the new Book
of Common Prayer
(much of which is written by Thomas Cranmer).
|1553||Death of King Edward VI of England:
succeeded by his Roman Catholic half-sister Mary.
marries Philip of Spain, future king.
|1556||Queen Mary burns the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer at
the stake when he refuses to recant his Protestantism.
|1558||Mary Queen of England dies and is succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth as Queen Elizabeth I. Protestant Church of England re-instated.
Death of Charles V former King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor.
|1564||(April 23) Birth of William Shakespeare.
|1568||Revolt of the Protestant Netherlands from control of Spain.
Birth of new Protestant Republic of Netherlands and birth of new
|1585||Shakespeare comes to London.|
|1586||Unveil the plot to kill Queen Eliz and put Mary Queen
of Scots on throne. Mary sentenced to death (executed 1587).
|1588||Spanish Armada, Spain’s attempt to destroy Protestant England with the cooperation of the Papacy fails. This final blow to idea of reuniting all of Europe under renewed Roman Catholic Papacy.|
Romeo and Juliet.
A Midsummer Night’s Dream.
Merchant of Venice.
|1601||Earl of Essex leads revolt against Eliz;
is tried and executed.
Queen Eliz delivers her “Golden Speech” surveying 43 year reign.
|1603||Death of Queen Elizabeth of England.
Cousin James of Scotland succeeds as James I.
|1605||Shakespeare: King Lear and Macbeth.
Sir Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning.
In London, Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot.
|1607||Foundation of colony of Jamestown, Virginia.
first English settlement in America.
|1608||Birth of John Milton.|
|1610||Galileo, The Starry Messenger, published in Venice.
One of the most shocking and exciting works of scientific advance
ever experienced in modern Europe. Galileo becomes an overnight
sensation, a scientific rock star. Letters pour into Padua from
all over Europe.
Anatomy of the World.
|1612||Dutch on Manhattan Island.
Begin building very tall buildings.
|1614||Sir Walter Raleigh writes The History of the World.|
|1616||Death of Shakespeare.
Death of Cervantes.
|1619||Wm Harvey announces discovery of circulation
|1620||Pilgrims leave Plymouth, England in Mayflower,seek religious liberty (Puritans).|
|1622||Weekeley Newes issued in London for first time.
Beginning of modern newspapers, London ahead of all cities.
|1623||Publish the First Folio edition of Mr William Shakespeare’s
“Comedies, Histories and Tragedies Published According to the True
|1625||Death of King James I.
succeeded by son Charles I.
|1626||Death of Francis Bacon.
|1630||John Winthrop (1587-1649) sails with Plymouth Company
expedition, April arrives Mass. with 1000 settlers, founds Boston
in Sept, becomes first governor of the state, 16,000 more settlers
Dialogue on Two Chief World Systems (pub in Flo).
First coffee shop opens in London(Newspapers and coffee houses).Birth of John Locke.
|1633||(Jun) Galileo in before Inquisition:
abjures the Dialogue in Rome.
|1636||Foundation of Harvard.
Tea appears in Paris for first time.
|1640||Short Parliament & Long Parliament(to 1653).Begin of war between King of England and the Parliament.|
|1642||Begin hostilities of the English Civil War.
All theaters closed in England:
Rembrandt’s The Night Watch.Death of Galileo.
|1643||King Louis XIV becomes King of France (to 1715)
the most powerful monarch of the 17th century.
Moliere founds the Illustre Theatre in Paris, later Comedie Francaise.
|1644||John Milton: Areopagitica argues for the freedom of the press, radical
idea and part of the growing democratic spirit of both England and
the new colonies.
|1647||King Charles of England captured,
|1649||(Jan 19)Trial of King of England before court of Parliament.
(Jan. 30)Execution of the King of England by Parliament.
|1660||Parliament invites Charles II:
Come back into England.
|1665||First issue of London Gazette:one of first newspapers.|
|1666||The Great Fire of London.|
|1685||Death of King Charles II of England,
succeeded by James II.
|1688||Expel James II,
invite in Protestant William and Mary from Holland.
|1689||Parliament confirms “abdication” of James,
accession of Wm & Mary.
Proclamation of a Declaration of Rights in England
(freedom of speech, press).
Essay Concerning Human Understanding.