From 1789 to 1815 France dominated the politics of Europe. First came the Revolution which began in June of 1789, and wandered through the next ten years during which France declared war on various European powers whom the French considered (and were!) enemies. French Revolutionary forces led by Bonaparte invaded Italy in 1796 and then came back many times more. With the rise of Napoleon into imperial status and power, France took over the rule of much of Italy. Napoleon installed his family in friends in various states and by the time of his fall in 1815, Italy had been transformed.


Make sure you are buying this edition since it has been updated in 2007.

Giuseppe Di Lampedusa,

The Leopard: A Novel,

Pantheon; Reprint edition (November 6, 2007),

ISBN 0375714790

Christopher Duggan,

A Concise History of Italy,

Cambridge University Press; 2 edition (January 20, 2014),

ISBN 0521747430