Pope Pius IX (Italian: Pio IX; 1792 – 1878), born Giovanni Maria Ferretti,reigned as Pope from 16 June 1846 to his death in 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving for over 31 years. During his pontificate Pius IX convened the First Vatican Council (1869–70), which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short owing to the loss of the Papal States. Pius IX defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. He was also the last pope to rule as the Sovereign of the Papal States, which fell completely to the Italian Army in 1870 and were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy. After this, he was referred to—chiefly by himself—as the "Prisoner of the Vatican". (Wikipedia)


Christopher Duggan,

A Concise History of Italy,

Cambridge University Press; 2 edition (January 20, 2014),

ISBN 0521747430


David I. Kertzer,

The Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara,

Vintage; 1st Vintage Books Ed edition (June 30, 1998),

ISBN 0679768173

David I. Kertzer,

The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe,

Random House Trade Paperbacks (January 6, 2015),

ISBN 081298367X