The great cathedrals of Europe are located in all the big cities in all European countries. They were constructed in the period between 1000 and 1400. The name of a "cathedral" rests on the presence of a bishop. The bishop's seat is the cathedra thus with a bishop in residence any Christian church becomes a cathedral: Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. Many great churches of Europe (Toulouse for example) are great examples of Medieval architecture but are not "cathedrals" due to the absence of a bishop. When we speak of a "cathedral" we usually mean a Medieval Gothic cathedrals. The greatest and largest Medieval Gothic cathedrals are located in the great capitals of Europe: Paris, York, Toledo, Milan Florence and Cologne. Paris created the "Gothic" cathedral. Paris invented Gothic architecture about 1150 with the construction of the church of Saint Denis in north Paris dedicated to the first great saint of Paris martyred in 250 AD Saint Denis. (The 19th century art historians invented the term "Gothic" for these cathedrals. It was an insult. They did not like Gothic. They liked the architecture of the Classical world: The Parthenon for example. So they invented a term to cast a cloud over the Gothic cathedrals.) Below see Notre Dame de Paris looking at the cathedral from the river on the south side.